Footnotes for Bug Off

1. For an overview of other surveillance technologies, see M.L. Shannon, Don't Bug Me: The Latest High Tech Spy Methods, Paladin Press(1992). Back

2.United States Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1994 (1995). Back

3.See Facts on File, Latin American and Caribbean News (May 2, 1991). Back

4.Mark Fineman, "Latest Mexico Wiretap Scandal Spurs Move to Curb Widespread Practice,"LA Times (June 17, 1995). Back

5. For a survey of UK Wiretapping, see Patrick Fitzgerald and Mark Leopold, Stranger on the Line: The Secret History of Phone Tapping, Bodley Head (1987). Back

6.Comments of Hansjorg Geiger, German Federal Commission for the Stasi Files (April 14, 1993). Back

7.Ottawa Citizen, Jan. 31, 1994 at 1. Back

8. See Rafayenko and Rubnikovich, "Total Eavesdropping Impossible," Russian Press Digest (April 8, 1993)(from Nezavisimaya Gazeta). Back

9.David Banisar, "French Wiretapping Scandal Leads to Electoral Defeat," 13 The Privacy Times 3 (April 1, 1993). Back

10.See Electronic Spying, Mentor Publications (1976). Back

11.103 Public Law 414(1994). Back

12.White House Press Release on the "Clipper Chip" (April 16, 1993). Back

13.See Simon Davies, Big Brother, Simon and Schuster (1992), Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community, Harper (2nd ed. 1989) Chapter 12. Back

14. One currently available program is named "Nautilus" and can conect two PCs. Another program called Voice PGP is available for Macintoshes and will be available shortly for PCs. For information on accessing both programs, see http:// Back

15.Harris Corporation in the US sells a device called "TriggerFish" which can be used to continuously monitor a cellular conversation as it moves around a city. Back

16.Jennifer Griffin, Voice of America (Mar. 4, 1995) Back

17.Bernard Lagan and Anne Davies, "New digital phones on line despite objections," The Sydney Morning Herald, 28 April, 1993Back

18.See James Riley, Computer Fraud on Increase, South China Morning Post, Nov. 9, 1993 at Supp. 1.Back

19.Joseph Fried, Police Filch Faxes to Snare a Gambling Ring, NYT , June 3, 1990 at 33. Back

20. For example TRW and Ricoh Canada sell the TRW Fax Encryptor 300 for $US 2,995. SecuriCrypto AG of Sweden sells the SecuriFax for $2,000. Back

21.See Gregory Millman, From Dragnet to Drift Net: Telephone Record Surveillance and the Press, Dudley Clendinen, Justice Dept Gets Phone Records of the Time's Bureau in Atlanta, NYT, Sept. 6, 1980 at 6. Back

22.Sharansky, Fear No Evil Back

23. William Bulkeley, CIPHER PROBE: Popularity Overseas Of Encryption Code Has the U.S. Worried, Wall Street Journal, April 28, 1994 at 1. Back

24. Andrew Morris, Report from South Africa. International Privacy Bulletin, Volume 1, Issue 4 (October 1993). Back

25.PGP 2.6, the most recent version of PGP, was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is subject to the same export controls laws as hardware devices so export outside the US and Canada is strictly prohibited. US residents can obtain it via ftp from If you do not have Internet access, it can be obtained from the Colorado Catacombs BBS at (303) 678-9939. For those who wish to use PGP for commercial uses, a commercial version is also available from VIACRYPT at: Tel: (602) 944-0773, Fax: (602) 943-2601 , E-Mail: PGP is already widely available from many sites outside the US so non-US residents will also be able to obtain it easily. A full list of available sites is available from Mike Johnson at There are several books currently available on using PGP: Bruce Schneier, Emaill Privacy (1995), William Stallings, Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for PGP Users, Prentice Hall (1995) and Simpson Garfinkel, PGP: Pretty Good Privacy, O"Reilly and Associates (1995). Back

26.PGP is available for Atari, IBM PCs (and clones) & OS/2, Apple Macintosh, NeXT, Sun, VAX/VMS, UNIX and, IBM mainframes. Back